The residents of Bambooflat, Wimberllygunj, Shore Point and several other villages of the Ferrargunj Teshil for many years have been dreaming about a bridge connecting Chatham and Bambooflat. A people’s movement is gaining momentum, demanding the construction of a bridge across the sea that separates Chatham and Bambooflat by at least one kilometer. 
Just imagine, if such a bridge really comes up connecting these two parts of the land, it not only increases potential for economic progress that improves general living conditions but will facilitate round the clock movement of people and vehicles. The critically ill and seriously injured patients will be immensely benefited as they can be immediately rushed to G. B. Pant hospital in the shortest possible time without wasting precious time and travelling through the long road route. 
People can even come to this part of the city by walk. The huge rush of passengers in the ferry boats/ vehicle ferries witnessed on a daily basis can be done away with. Besides improving the connectivity, it will ease the rush of passengers in ferry boats and vehicle ferries. The Directorate of Shipping Services, which is finding it very difficult to cater to the growing movement of passengers and commuters can also heave a sign of relief.
“We have been watching in the Discovery and National Geography Channels about massive bridges being constructed in a number of foreign countries, but such a bridge in our Islands, hard to believe, not possible”, said one Ashok Sharma.
“A bridge between Chatham and Port Blair, great to hear, said a resident of Bambooflat. Yes, the Govt. must go for such a project immediately. It will benefit in quick transportation of critically ill patients to the main hospital at Port Blair”, he lamented.
The construction of such a bridge would in fact provide an option to the passengers to travel either by ferry boats or over the bridge. The Administration must without much delay moot a massive bridge project proposal, which should be included in our development plan and implemented on an urgent basis so that a long-standing demand of the people of the region would be fulfilled. Before this, a feasibility study of the bridge must be explored to the full through a survey by a team of experts. 
The bridge would not only go a long way in improving road connectivity between Port Blair and Bambooflat, but will help in the all-round development of the Islands besides help exploit the commercial market for the produce of this region and enable price control of vegetables and food items. Long distance from the city was one hassle that plagued the transportation of produce from this part of the area to find its way in the city market.
The problem of stray cattle, stray dogs and pigs on roads is not something new to the city. The more the city is made beautiful, the more stray animals can be seen roaming in the main roads of the city. These stray animal cause traffic jams and accidents. Their dung causes dirty roads, cluttered parks and clogged drains. They can take a nap anywhere, even in the middle of the road. Sometimes they get agitated and attack humans as well. These stray animals not only give an ugly impression to urban locality, also risk the chances of road accidents to a remarkable extent. These animals constantly eat food from garbage and leftovers and most of them are sick and not healthy as they do not live on grass and hygienic food.
Stray animals are creating a nuisance for the commuters and pedestrians as a large number of stray cattle and dogs roam on busy roads of the city. Many accidents have taken place due to stray cattle and the number of such victims is on the rise. Almost every road is struggling to cope up with the menace of stray cattle. The problem is especially severe in the evening, when the cattle are let free and invariably end up on the road.
The irony is we are fascinated that the Port Blair Airport has been declared as International airport and soon the city will be booming with foreign tourists and the Islands have embarked on the path to become the most sought after tourism destination in the World. Needless to say, the city is still confronted with problems such as stray animals menace.
Although most of these stray cows are actually left by owners because they do not have place to let their animals lose for gazing grass. Ideally these animals should be removed and sent to a forest where they can live their natural life. Before sending them to a preferred location they should be sterilized so that they cannot reproduce further. Creating shelters on outer city limits is a good idea which the authorities must seriously ponder over. All cattle should be fitted with some identification mark for identification purpose.
Strict penalty should be imposed on owners of these stray cattle. Efforts must also be made to impose responsible ownership among cattle keepers. The Port Blair Municipal Council must ensure that cattle owners do not let animals block traffic in busy roads. Traffic police should be involved to keep away stray cattle away from busy sections of the roads.
The Municipal Council has crores of rupees, but still it has not been able to effectively deal with the problem. Despite continuous cry by the city dwellers to curb the menace, the authorities have failed to do the needful. The stray cattle that are caught in the morning are left in the evening to be caught again in the morning.
NGO’s and private donors can also extend their helping hand to get rid of the problem. They can help by way of setting gaushalas in suburbs so that these cattle can found shelters. Appeal would be made to every temple, gurdwara and other religious institutions to donate funds for feeding the “helpless creatures”. The medical care would be provided by the veterinary department.
It is high time that all concerned must seriously ponder over this important issue to find a long-lasting solution to the problem.
Vijay Roy
M.Com, Diploma in Journalism
Port Blair, A & N Islands

The modern period in the history of Andaman and Nicobar began only in 1789, when the British East India Company began their first penal settlement here.
Before this, no chronological history of these islands is available. But we can find some historical and mythological evidence and references upon which the pre-modern period may be formed without conjecture.
As these islands fell on the ancient trade route between Indian and South East Asia, the trading ships would certainly need to anchor near these islands for shelter during stormy weather and for replenish water.
There are so many theories about the origin of these islands and advent of man here. We get some references from Ramayana, the older epic of India Lord Rama wanted to Bridge the sea, in order to recover Sita, who have been abducted by King Ravana of Lanka. This led to the association of the islands calling the inhabitants Handuman. It is from here that the name ‘Andaman’ is derived.
According to another theory, the name Andaman owes its origin to the Malays, who have known the islands from time immemorial. Since the Islands provided them with slaves. They used to sail across the seas, capture some of the aborigines and give them away as slaves in trade. The Malays called the area ‘the islands of Handuman’, because that is how they pronounced the name of Hanuman in the Ramayana, and the name of Handuman eventually became ‘Andaman’ whatever may have been the original name of the islands. It continued to be referred to as such with slight phonetic difference by the numerous travelers who touched the shores of these islands from second to sixteenth century. Consequently, the name used by the Malay’s struck of these Islands.
Ptolemy, who lived in Alexandria, a geographer of Roman Empire of second Century mentioned the Agmatae or Aginae as one of the islands groups in the Indian Ocean. However he describes these islands as ‘Islands of the Cannibals’ and ‘The Islands of Fortune’.
The first recorded reference to these islands is found in the monumental work ‘Badhisattavanda Kalpata’ by Kshendra, the Kashmiri poet who related how once Emperor Ashoka the Great, seated on the throne in Pataliputra in 3rd Century B.C. was approached by some Indian Merchants who complained to him of their losses and complete ruin brought out by ‘Black Savages’ when they passed through these Islands.
The next reference to these islands is found in the writing of I’Tsing, the Chinese traveler who sailing on a Persian ship, started on a voyage to India in 671 AD. He referred to these islands as ‘The islands of Cannibals’, which he called the ‘Andaban’ and, Yang- t’amang or the ‘Land of the Naked’ respectively. He gave vivid descriptions of the place. He described the transaction with the Tribals, involving the barter of Coconut for iron.
Then came two Arab travelers who also it seems, did not actually visit any of the Andaman group of Islands. Their account was translated in the 18th Century by Abbe Renaudot the French Priest. The Arabs had perhaps actually undertaken their travels some time in the 870s. Describing these islands and their people they wrote, “The people who inhabit the coast, eat human flesh, absolutely raw”. They are dark and have fuzzy hair frightful faces and eyes; enormous feet almost elbow length, and they go about ‘naked’. They have no boats and they would be eating all passers by those could get hold of.
In the history of T’ang Dynasty of China (619-916 AD) there are references of ‘Land of the Rakhsas’.
We get the authentic and detailed account of the Andamans from the writing of two Arab travelers of the ninth century A.D. namely Abu Zaid Hasan and Sulaiman. It is agreed by all that the islands called by them ‘Najabalus’ are to be identified with the Andamans. Their accounts have been translated’ as follows-
“The islands called Najabalus are with pretty well people. Both the men and the women there go naked, except that the women conceal their private parts with leaves of trees… Beyond these two islands lie the sea of Andaman. The people on the coast eat human flesh quite raw, their complexion in black, their hair frizzled, their feet are very large, and almost a cubit in length, and they quite naked… When ships have been kept back by contrary winds, they are often in these seas and obliged to drop anchor on this barbarous coast for the sake of water. When they have expended their stock, and upon these occasions they commonly lose some of their men. 
In the Tanjore inscriptions of 1050 AD these islands are called ‘Timative’ which means the islands of ‘impurity’.
In 1290 AD Marco Polo, who visited the Andamans on his way to China, refers to the Islands as Angamanian. He gives the following account: ‘Angamanian is a very large Island. The people are without a king and are idolaters and no better than wild beast. All the men of this island have head like dogs and teeth and eyes likewise. In fact in the face they are all just like big mastiff dogs… They are most cruel generations and eat everybody that they can catch if not of their own race. They live in flesh and rice and milk and have fruits different from any of ours.

Few European travelers also have left some accounts of the Andamans: In 1322 AD Friar Odoric calls the people dog faced, cannibals, also traders etc.
In 1440 AD Nicolo Conti mentions the Andaman as ‘Andamania’, which he explains as ‘Island of Gold’ as by this time it was rumoured that gold is available there. He also regarded them as cannibals. Travelers, when taken by these cannibals are torn to pieces and devoured by these cruel savages. He had followed the roads and routes of the east from Damascus to Indo-China during the year 1414-39 AD.
The myth continued till even as late as the 1625, because Master Caesar Frederike, who published his Eighteen yeer’s Indian observation in the year, that wrote-
From Necubar to Pegu is, as it were a row or chain of an infinite numbers of islands of which many are inhabited with wild people, and they call those islands the Islands of Andaman and they call their people savages or wild because they eat one another, also these islands have war with one another, and if by evil chance any ship be lost on those islands. As many have been, there’s not one man of these ships lost there that escaped uneaten or unstain. These people have not any acquaintance with any other people, neither have they trade with any but live only of such fruits as those islands yield.
Friar Odoric in the fourteen century, Nicolo Conti in the fifteenth century, Caeser Fredrick in the sixteenth and Captain Alexander Hamilton at the beginning of the eighteenth century seem similarly to have relied on imagination rather than observation in their account of these inhabitants. They were convinced that the Islands were peopled by the most savages or cannibals.

Nicobar Islands: The origin of the Nicobar appears to be some what less mysterious because throughout the historical times the Nicobar Islands have often been referred to as the ‘Land of the Naked People’ in the accounts of the voyagers. I’ Tsing describes them Lo-Jen-Kuo, which means, “Land of the Naked people”, Ptolemy was more clear about Nicobars then the Andamans. ‘Nagadipa and Barussa’ a group of five islands mentioned by him can be identified with Nicobar and Teressa group of Islands in Central Nicobar. According to him the people of these islands had tails. Perhaps the customs of wearing a strip of cloth by the Nicobarese, which hands down from the posteriors of their body led him to the above belief.
The Arab travelers while going to china came to Nicobar in 851 AD, called them ‘Lakhabalus’ or ‘Najabulus’ which was perhaps a man transcription of some from of Nicobar because it also means ‘land of the naked’. The Tanjore inscription of 1050 AD, describe the conquest of ‘Karadipa’ and ‘Nagadipa’ respectively by Rajendra II, the great Chola ruler. These names may have been used for Car Nicobar and Great Nicobar. They are mentioned as Nakkavaram, which translates as ‘Land of the Naked’.
The Tanjore inscription of 1050 AD, describe the conquest of ‘Kardipa, and Nagadipa’ respectively by Rajendra II. The Great Nicobar are mentioned as Nakkavaram, which translates as ‘Land of the Naked’.
Dr. S. Krishnaswamy Iyengar has described the century when these were conquered by Chola kings and they were known to Cholas as ‘Kardipa’ and ‘Nagadipa’ respectively.
There is also one popular saying about the nomenclature of Andaman and Nicobar was that during the Cholas occupation of these islands, the soldiers went for search of some valuable medicinal plants. Indeed on the way they found some beautiful deer’s. One among them told ‘Andhamaan Nikidipar, which it means ‘look at the deer’s standing’. This saying among Tamils gradually developed and spelled as ‘Andaman’ ‘Nicobar’.
Marco Polo’s ‘Necuveran’ (AD 1292)) Rashiduddin’s ‘Nakawaram’ (AD 1300) and Friar Odoric’s ‘Nicoveran’ (AD 1322) are obviously lineal ancestors of 15th and 16th century Portuguese ‘Nacabar’ and Nicubar and the modern day ‘Nicobar’ is derived.
The Portugese pioneers tried to spread the Christian faith, but there are few records of their activities.
In 1556, Captain Fredrick touched the shores of one of the Nicobar Islands. After him, many years later in 1601 (during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I) Sir James Lancaster, who was on his way to the spice islands in command of an east Indian company ship, paid a visit to these islands. Domenic Fernandez, a Spanish missionary, who visited the Nicobars during his voyages in 1669 repeat the same erroneous impression.
During a voyages round the world is 1688, Captain Alexander Dampier faced a mutiny of his sailors nears the shores of Nicobars. Before sailing for Sumatra in an indigenous canoe he lived with his few companions for some days at Nicobar. He was the first visitor of these islands, who correctly described the people as harmless. According to him they lived under government equal without any distinction, everyman ruling in his own house. Captain Weldom who was at Camorta told Dampier that two Jesuits were staying in that island for propagating their faith.  
Conclusion :- If we keep aside the exaggeration and unscientific conjectures of all these accounts, we can easily form a beautiful picturesque of the Land and People of the past of our Andaman and Nicobar Islands.


1. R.C Mazumder- ‘The Penal Settlement in Andaman’ (Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, Government of India New Delhi, 1975).
2. N. Iqbal Singh- ‘The Andaman Story’ (Vikash Publishing House, Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, Bombay, Knapur 1978)
3. Kiran Dhingra- ‘A Andaman and Nicobar in the 20th Century’: A Gazette, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2005)
4. L.P. Mathur- ‘Kalapani’ History of Andaman Nicobar Islands with a study of India’s Freedom Struggle’ (Oriental Publication & Exporters 124 Chanderlok, Enclave, Pitampura Delhi, 110034 (India January, 1985)
5. S.N. Agarwal- ‘The Heroes of Cellular Jail’ (Publication Bureau, Punjab University, Patiala 15 Dec. 1994)
6. M.V. Portman: ‘A History of our relations with the Andamans’ (London 1899).
7. R.V.R. Murthy: ‘Andaman and Nicobar Islands’ (Development and Decentralisation) (Mittal Publications New Delhi (INDIA), 2005.
8. Selection from the Government of India, Records Vol. 77.
9. Captain Dampier: ‘A collection of Voyages round the world.
10. Sir Henry Yule, ‘The Book of Sir Marco-Polo 2 Vols, 3rd Ed. John Murray London 1903.  

- Ms. Sagarika Bairagi is a Guest Lecturer of History attached to the JNRM, Port Blair.
The accelerated rate of motorization occurring in the city in the last few years then it can possibly accommodate, led to growing traffic congestion which has emerged as one of the most serious transport problem facing the city. Most of the city roads are witnessing serious traffic chaos on almost all days resulting in huge inconvenience to the vehicular traffic and pedestrian alike. All most all streets and lanes, largely residential are increasingly beginning to resemble noisy main roads. The situation is so pathetic that parents have to tell their children to take extra care while going to neighbours houses as they believe the area remain no more residential any more. This is because right from heavy vehicles to an annoying array of motorbikes, vehicles take the smaller lanes as short-cut to reach their destinations. The smoke and dust generated often leave people coughing through the day. Rush and negligent driving by motorists have added to their vows. Dangerous driving by motorists has become rampant. The alarming road accidents are testimony to the fact.  
Traffic congestion occurs when a volume of traffic generates demand for space greater than the available road capacity. There are a number of specific circumstances which cause or aggravate congestion-most of them reduce the capacity of a road at a given point or over a certain length. Traffic congestion has a number of negative effects: It is seen as wasting of time of the motorists and passengers. Delays, which may result in late arrival for employment, meetings and disciplinary action by employer, wasted fuel, increases air population, wear and tear on vehicles as a result of idling in traffic and frequent acceleration and braking, leading to more frequent repairs and replacements, stressed and frustrated motorists, encouraging road rage, emergencies blocked traffic may interfere with the passage of emergency vehicles traveling to their destinations where they are urgently needed. 
Shortage of Parking space: Another important aspect that required serious attention by the authorities is the lack of sufficient parking place for vehicles. People park their vehicles in main road causing great inconvenience to pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Parking has been a problem in the city for several years and increase in the number of vehicles has only added to it. Four-wheelers used to park their vehicles on pavements, leaving no space for pedestrians to walk. It is common to see vehicles parked haphazardly even on busy roads in the city. One of the main contributing factors for the worsening of parking problem in the city is the lack of adequate parking space in most of the commercial buildings. Addressing parking shortage and traffic congestion in the city is very important in the long term planning for the city.  
New parking sites must be developed to accommodate more cars on a free basis in the city’s residential areas. Several residential areas in the town have been facing an acute shortage of parking space for a long time. It is therefore imperative that the number of parking sites in the city must be increased. There is ample vacant land in the city in which parking space can be developed. There are several commercial complexes in the cities but none of them have parking facility. New buildings in the city do not have adequate parking space. As a result, people who come to these buildings are forced to park their vehicles outside. Owners of all such complexes must be directed to clear the basements of their building to provide parking space. Construction of flyovers and over-bridges at important road junctions is being seen by some as possible solution to the traffic congestion in areas like Babuline, Junglighat and Aberdeen Bazaar, which is creating problems for the movement of vehicular traffic in day as well as night. 
Impact of technology: Technology does not replace the larger solution, but it does provide some needed temporary relief. New measures like construction of new road infrastructure as well as improvement in the public transport system has to be initiated to control traffic congestion. Measures such as city planning and urban design practices can have huge impact on further traffic congestion. Road space rationing must be implemented to prevent certain type of vehicles from driving in certain areas which would help ease traffic congestion. Measure like school opening time to avoid peak hour traffic has helped reduce traffic congestion to a considerable extent. A very convenient system need to be implemented to minimize the inconvenience of the people. 
Role of Traffic Police: Though, a full-fledged Traffic Unit is managing the helm of affairs as regard city traffic in the Port Blair town, one is made to understand that traffic regulation in the city is restricted mainly in imposing challan on two-wheelers for not wearing helmets rather focusing on mitigating the real traffic related problems. Traffic police can be seen in different points of the city imposing challan on two wheelers and autos. Monitoring traffic movements and road situations, checking irregularities and violation of the law, operational involvement in traffic regulations as and when needed, involvement in educational drives launched by the traffic police from time to time, making suggestions for improvement of various traffic problems, continuously promoting road safety awareness in public and school children, rendering assistance to victims of road accidents, helping and guiding pedestrians to cross road and walk on footpaths safely, guiding road users to observe traffic rules, preventing violation of traffic rules and regulations, helping police to maintain order on festivals and other occasions and ensuring regulating traffic and inculcating better traffic sense in the public are some of the other issues which the traffic police must focus on in the greater interest of smooth movement of city traffic.
Brief Introduction:

“Plead Guilty and ensure Lesser Sentence” is the shortest possible meaning of Plea Bargaining. The Concept of Plea Bargaining in India is just three years old. The Concept was introduced in India by means of Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2005. By this amendment, a new chapter that is Chapter XXI A has been introduced in the Cr.P.C.

History of Plea Bargaining:

Plea Bargaining fostered by the Indian Legislature is actually the sperm child of the West. The concept has been very much alive in the American System in the 19th century itself. Plea Bargaining is so common in the American System that every minute a case is disposed in the American Criminal Court by way of guilty plea. England, Wales, Australia and Victoria also recognizes plea bargaining. Every time we turn on to an American Cinema, we come across this concept.

Plea Bargaining: The Indian Version

Plea Bargaining can be defined as “Pre-Trial negotiations between the accused and the prosecution during which the accused agrees to plead guilty in exchange for certain concessions by the prosecution.”

The Supreme Court was very much against the concept of Plea Bargaining before its introduction. In State of Uttar Pradesh Vs Chandrika, the Supreme Court of India held that it is settled law that on the basis of Plea Bargaining court cannot dispose of the criminal cases. The court has to decide it on merits. If the accused confesses his guilt, even then appropriate sentence is required to be implemented. 

The Court further held in the same case that, mere acceptance or admission of the guilt should not be a ground for reduction of sentence, nor can the accused bargain with the court that as he is pleading guilty his sentence should be reduced.

Despite strict opposition by the Supreme Court, the Government found it comfortable to introduce this concept. Long list of pending cases before the Criminal courts was cited as the reason for the enactment of this provision. If a person accepts his guilt, then the time of the Prosecution is saved, which can be then properly utilized for proving more serious offences.

Plea Bargaining is applicable only in respect of those offences for which Punishment of Imprisonment is up to a period of 7 years. It does not apply where such offence affects the Socio-economic condition of the country or has been committed against women or committed against a child below the age of 14 years. 

The application for plea bargaining should be filed by the accused voluntarily before the court which is trying the offence. The complainant and the accused are then given time by the court to work out satisfactory disposition of the case. The court may reduce the sentence to 1/4th if the accused pleads guilty. There shall be no appeal in the case where judgment has been pronounced by the court on the basis of plea bargaining.

Drawbacks of Plea-Bargaining:

India is a country with lots of illiterate citizens who are unaware of their rights. There are people who don’t even know that they have a right to legal assistance when they stand before the court as an accused. The poor and illiterate citizens can be easily overpowered by the police and asked to plead guilty. This may convert the whole process of trial into “a drama”.  

The uneducated won’t even know that they have a far better chance of winning their case and be acquitted. Moreover, the officers in charge of the investigation may be tempted to enter into deals with the accused for monetary gains. If the plea bargaining application of the accused is rejected then the accused would find it very difficult to prove himself innocent.

The concept of Plea Bargaining has been introduced in India by seeing its success in America. The Law Makers in India have failed to take account of the fact that in America, Plea Bargaining was a practice even before it was introduced in the law. In India, the concept has been directly introduced as Law. The law makers even failed to notice the wide gap between the socio-economic conditions of U.S and India. The Government has also failed to update the people regarding this new amendment in the Criminal Law. The success or failure of this Concept in the Indian Context can only be judged when this baby concept becomes five or six years old.

* The author of this article is a LL.M Scholar from ‘Dr. Ambedkar Law College’, Puducherry-605 014. Xavier hails from Mayabunder in North Andaman. He is one of the few youth from the islands to take up Masters in Law.